Microstructure Analysis of Nanocrystalline Powders by X-ray Diffraction
D. Lour and N. Audebrand
Laboratoire de Chimie du Solide et Inorganique Moleculaire (UMR CNRS 6511) Institut de Chimie, Universite de Rennes Av. du General Leclerc, 35042 Rennes cedex, France
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The use of X-ray diffraction line profile analysis for the study of nanocrystalline powders is described. The fundamentals of the theory are presented in terms of crystallite/domain size, size distribution, lattice distortion, dislocation density and stacking faults. Line profile parameters and the methods of pattern fitting introduced to overcome the diffraction-line overlap problem are described. The approaches based of the integral breadth of the measured line profiles and the Fourier method are discussed. In addition, simplified approaches are also commented. Representative examples are selected to illustrate various cases of microstructure, such as nanomaterials with strain-free spherical nanocrystallites, strain-free crystallites with anisotropic crystallite shape, anisotropic crystallites with microstrains and spherical crystallites with dislocation densities and crystallite size distributions.
DOI: 10.12693/APhysPolA.102.45
PACS numbers: 61.10.Dp, 61.10.Nz, 61.46.+w, 61.72.Dd, 61.72.Lk, 61.72.Mm