Bose-Einstein Condensates in Optical Lattices
W. Wasilewskia, M. Trippenbacha and K. Rzążewskib
aInstitute of Experimental Physics, Optics Division Warsaw University, Hoża 69, 00-681 Warsaw, Poland
bCenter for Theoretical Physics, Polish Academy of Sciences, al. Lotników 32/46, 02-668 Warsaw, Poland
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We study an ultracold dilute gas of bosonic atoms in an optical lattice induced by intersecting laser beams. As a first approximation we neglect confining potential and atom-atom interactions. In this case the Gross-Pitaevskij equation reduces to simple Mathieu equation. Upon choosing periodic boundary conditions this problem has well known periodic solution. This simple picture allows to demonstrate localization of the wave packet and formation of the band structure. We calculate spectrum of the excited states as a function of the strength of modulating potential and using a standard adiabaticity criterion we predict the most efficient way to ramp up optical lattice, without higher state excitation. Finally, we discuss the influence of the atom-atom interaction (nonlinearity) on the adiabaticity of the process.
DOI: 10.12693/APhysPolA.101.47
PACS numbers: 03.75.Fi, 03.67.Hk, 03.67.Lx, 71.35.Lk