Advances in Development of Powder-in-Tube Nb3Sn, Bi-Based, and MgB2 Superconducting Conductors
B.A. Glowackia, b, c, d
aDepartment of Materials Science and Metallurgy, University of Cambridge, 27 Charles Babbage Road, Cambridge CB3 0FS, UK
bInstitute of Power Engineering, Mory 8, 01-330 Warsaw, Poland
cEpoch Wires Ltd, Unit 8, Burlington Park, Foxton, Cambridge, CB22 6SA, UK
dDepartment of Physics and Energy, Bernal Institute, University of Limerick, Castletroy, Ireland
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Analysis of the applicability of the low cost powder-in-tube technology of technical Nb3Sn, Bi2Sr2CaCu2O8+d and MgB2 superconducting conductors has been presented in respect of their complexity in emerging hydrogen cryomagnetic technology where temperature of the liquid hydrogen can be as low as 14.1 K, and all above conductors can be considered having a comparable Jc(B,T) characteristics. The new emerging hydrogen economy where liquid hydrogen can serve as an energy carrier and cryogenic coolant with exceptionally high latent heat value presents opportunities for the range of superconducting materials characterised by Tc applicable at hydrogen technologies. All above powder-in-tube conductors are exploring solid-liquid reactive diffusion processes originated from the complex compounds or intermetallics, defining the actual ``technical price'' in (€ /(kA m)) of the resulting wire compound based on Jc(B,T) characteristics and materials as well as manufacturing cost and complexity. This rather complex techno-economic aspect of superconducting powder-in-tube conductors needs to be addressed and analysed to help to solve a trilemma concerning powder-in-tube conductors at low temperatures.

PACS numbers: 74.25.Sv, 74.25.Ld, 74.62.Fj