Optical Investigation of the Cu Ions Diffusion into Bulk Lithium Niobate
D. Sugaka,b, I.I. Syvorotkaa,b, U. Yakhnevych a, O. Buryy a, N. Martynyuk a, S. Ubizskii a, Ya. Zhydachevskyya,c, A. Suchockic,d, H. Kumar e, V. Janyani e and G. Singh e
aLviv Polytechnic National University, Lviv, Ukraine
bScientific Research Company "Electron-Carat", Lviv, Ukraine
cInstitute of Physics, PAS, Warsaw, Poland
dInstitute of Physics, Kazimierz Wielki University, Bydgoszcz, Poland
eDepartment of Electronics and Communication Engg. MNIT, Jaipur, India
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Spatial changes of optical properties of bulk LiNbO3 crystal were investigated after annealing in CuO powder. The incorporation of copper ions into the crystal was confirmed by registration of additional absorption spectra that revealed formation of the absorption bands of both Cu+ (400 nm) and Cu2+ (1000 nm) ions. The changes of optical absorption caused by thermal treatment were registered along the direction of diffusion by the probe beam perpendicular to this direction. The anisotropy of diffusion was revealed. The maxima were observed on the depth dependences of additional absorption both for the wavelengths of 400 and 1000 nm for all main crystallographic directions. The concentrations of copper ions were calculated in accordance with the Smakula-Dexter formula. The X-ray diffraction study revealed reflexes which probably belong to CuNb2O6, CuNbO3 and CuO. The halo was observed on these diffraction patterns that confirms the formation of the scattering centers (about 1 nm in diameter) in the near-surface region.

DOI: 10.12693/APhysPolA.133.936
PACS numbers: 66.30.-h, 78.20.-e