Optimization of Cyclotron Production for Radiometal of Zirconium 89
A.M. Dabkowskia, S.J. Paiseya, M. Talboysa,b and C. Marshalla
aWales Research and Diagnostic Positron Emission Tomography Imaging Centre (PETIC), School of Medicine, Cardiff University, Heath Park, Cardiff, CF14 4XN, UK
bMedical Physics Department, University Hospital of Wales, Heath Park, Cardiff, CF14 4XW, UK
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Zirconium 89 (89Zr) is a promising radionuclide for development of new PET agents due to its convenient half life of 78.4 h, β+ emission rate of 23%, low maximum energy of 0.9 MeV resulting in good spatial resolution, a stable daughter isotope of yttrium-89 (89Y) and favorable imaging characteristics, with only one significant γ-line of 909 keV emitted during decay alongside the 511 keV positron photons. Our aim was to share over 2 years of experience of producing isotopically pure 89Zr via the 89Y(p,n)89Zr nuclear reaction with a COSTIS Solid Target System (STS) and CYCLONE 18/9 cyclotron. We optimized the yields without producing either of the long-lived impurities 88Zr or 88Y. The degradation of the beam energy with 400 and 500 μm thick niobium foils was tested without overheating problems within 2-6 h of irradiation. From repeated measurements of activity, it was clear that there is a bi-exponential decay of radioactivity due to the short lived 89mZr and 89Zr. The measured half life of the longer lived radionuclide was consistent with value for 89Zr. The energy spectrum from 89Zr had energy peaks at 511 keV and 909 keV and was consistent with 89Zr. Production of 89Zr with 400 (Ep = 9.8 MeV) and 500 μ m (Ep = 11.6 MeV) thick niobium beam degrader was achieved, without producing either 88Zr or 88Y. It was necessary to wait at least 4 hours before measuring the activity and decay correct in order to calculate the 89Zr activity at the end of cyclotron production. Degrading the proton beam to 10 MeV produces radionuclidically pure 89Zr with yields from 8 to 9 MBq/μAh. Whilst this is enough for pre-clinical use, the yield is not enough for either clinical use or commercial supply. Use of thinner beam degraders (400 μm) increases the proton beam energy and increases the radionuclidic yield to 15.5 MBq/μAh whilst maintaining radionuclidic purity.

DOI: 10.12693/APhysPolA.127.1479
PACS numbers: 87.57.uk