X-ray Diffraction and Elemental Analysis of Medical and Environmental Samples
K. Bieleckaa, W. Kurteka, D. Banaśa, b, A. Kubala-Kukuśa, b, J. Braziewicza, b, U. Majewskaa, b, M. Pajeka, J. Wudarczyk-Moćkob and I. Stabrawab
aInstitute of Physics, Jan Kochanowski University, Świętokrzyska 15, 25-406 Kielce, Poland
bHolycross Cancer Center, S. Artwińskiego 3, 25-734 Kielce, Poland
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The results of the elemental and chemical composition analysis of human medical samples (blood, serum, hair, urine, tooth, kidney stones, gallstones) and environmental samples (slag, cereal, vegetables, flour, pork bones, pork meat, fish) are presented. The analysis were performed by application of the total reflection X-ray fluorescence, wavelength dispersive X-ray fluorescence and X-ray powder diffraction methods. With X-ray fluorescence methods the following elements were identified: O, Na, Mg, Al, Si, P, S, Cl, K, Ca, Ti, Mn, Fe, Ni, Cu, Zn, Se, Br, Rb, Sr, Zr, I, Ba, and Pb, whose concentrations were from a few ng/g to tens of percent. For some samples the elemental analysis was extended by X-ray powder diffraction measurements. With this method the chemical composition was determined. In the paper the experimental setups, methodology of samples preparation and methods of carrying out the measurements are described. As an example the X-ray spectra registered for gallstone sample are discussed in detail. Finally, the results of X-ray diffraction and elemental analysis for selected medical and environmental samples are summarized.

DOI: 10.12693/APhysPolA.125.911
PACS numbers: 78.70.En, 87.64.Bx, 32.30.Rj, 87.64.kv