Determination of Changes in Sulphur Oxidation States in Prostate Cancer Cells
J. Czaplaa, W.M. Kwiateka, J. Lekkia, R. Steiningerb and J. Göttlicherb
aThe Henryk Niewodniczański Institute of Nuclear Physics, Polish Academy of Sciences, E. Radzikowskiego 152, 31-342 Kraków, Poland
bKarlsruhe Institute of Technology, Institute for Synchrotron Radiation, Hermann-von-Helmholtz-Platz 1, D-76344 Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen, Germany
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Prostate cancer cell lines along with selected organic and inorganic compounds used as references were studied with sulphur K-edge X-ray absorption near edge structure spectroscopy. The experiment was performed at the SUL-X beamline of the synchrotron radiation source ANKA, Karlsruhe (Germany). The sulphur was chosen for the studies because it is an essential biological element and out of many relevant factors, it is believed that it can take an important part in cancer transformations. The main goal was to determine which sulphur forms occur in prostate cancer cells and to compare these results with the ones obtained for non-cancerous cells. Therefore oxidation state of this element was analysed with S K-edge X-ray absorption near edge structure spectroscopy. The analysis of K-edge structure was done in order to investigate also the chemical structure of the elements neighbouring the central atom. The preliminary results from sulphur X-ray absorption near edge structure in prostate cancer cell line PC-3 and prostatic epithelial cell line PZ-HPV-7 (which was used as a control) show that there are various oxidation states of sulphur occurring in cells. The set of reference compounds with various sulphur oxidation states was used to establish the relation between the energy of the white line maximum and the oxidation state of sulphur. The equation of linear fit was used to compute the unknown oxidation state. In order to obtain a more detailed information the method of deconvolution of X-ray absorption near edge structure spectra was used. Experimental spectra were fitted with two Gaussian peaks and one arc-tangent step function. Fitting procedure was performed in Athena code and the deconvolution was used to assign the fraction of each sulphur form. The next step was to compare the results calculated for cancerous and non-cancerous cells. In this work, the first results of these studies are presented.
DOI: 10.12693/APhysPolA.121.497
PACS numbers: 87.64.kd, 87.19.xj