Influence of Temperature and Impregnation Ratio of H3PO4 on the Production of Activated Carbon from Hazelnut Shell
Y. Örküna, N. Karatepea and R. Yavuzb
aEnergy Institute, Istanbul Technical University, 34469 Maslak, Istanbul, Turkey
bEngineering Department, Istanbul Technical University, Chemical 34469 Maslak, Istanbul, Turkey
Full Text PDF
Hazelnut shell was used as a precursor in the production of activated carbon by chemical activation with H3PO4 since there is a huge volume of such a solid waste resulting from the hazelnut production in eastern Black Sea region of Turkey. Effects of final activation temperature, time and H3PO4 concentration used in the impregnation stage on the porous development were investigated. Activation at low temperature represented that micropores were developed first and then mesoporosity developed, enhanced up to 400°C and then started to decrease due to possible shrinking of pores. The optimum temperature for hazelnut shell was found to be around 400°C on the basis of total pore volume and the Brunauer-Emmett-Teller surface area. It was clearly demonstrated that H3PO4 concentration used in the impregnation stage was not only effective for development of surface area and pore volumes but also an effective tool for tailoring the pore structure and size distribution.
DOI: 10.12693/APhysPolA.121.277
PACS numbers: 81.05.Rm, 81.05.U-