Ultra Fine-Grained Metals Prepared by Severe Plastic Deformation: A Positron Annihilation Study
J. Čížeka, I. Procházkaa, R. Kužela, Z. Matĕja, V. Cherkaskaa, M. Cieslara, B. Smolaa, I. Stulíkováa, G. Brauerb, W. Anwandb, R.K. Islamgaliev c and O. Kulyasovac
aFaculty of Mathematics and Physics, Charles University in Prague, V Holešovičkách 2, 180 00 Praha 8, Czech Republic
bInstitut für Ionenstrahlphysik und Materialforschung, Forschungszentrum Rossendorf, Dresden, Germany
cInstitute of Physics of Advanced Materials, Ufa State Aviation Technical University, Ufa, Russia
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Received: 20 09 2004;
Recent investigations of ultra fine-grained metals (Cu, Fe, Ni) performed within a Prague-Rossendorf-Ufa collaboration will be reviewed. The specimens were prepared by severe plastic deformation: the high-pressure torsion and equal channel angular pressing. Positron annihilation spectroscopy was used as the main method including (i) the conventional lifetime and the Doppler broadening measurements with 22Na and (ii) the slow-positron implantation spectroscopy with the Doppler broadening measurement. Other methods were also involved: transmission electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, and microhardness. First, the mean grain size was determined and defects were identified in the as-deformed materials. Defects concentration and spatial distribution were studied in detail. Dislocations situated in distorted regions along grain boundaries, and a few-vacancy clusters distributed homogeneously inside dislocations-free grains, were observed in the ultra fine-grained Cu, Fe, and Ni. Subsequently, the thermal evolution of the ultra fine-grained structures during isochronal annealing was studied.
DOI: 10.12693/APhysPolA.107.745
PACS numbers:78.70.Bj, 79.60.Jv